16 Jan 2021
January 16, 2021

balkans human trafficking

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Three of the six victims married their captors. Some of those involved are also exploited by the same groups in other forced criminal activities, especially drug smuggling and sale. With human trafficking and people smuggling linked to a number of other crimes, reinforced border controls led to the recovery of 10 firearms, 60kg of drugs and cash worth USD 200,000. Balkans: Operation Theseus busts human trafficking and migrant smuggling rings 89 victims of human trafficking rescued and 2,000 migrants detected. Only one woman and one girl who travelled the route were officially identified as trafficked in Serbia. Only a small minority of the cases indicated had been officially identified as trafficking, or even considered as potential trafficking cases by the authorities or non-governmental actors. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/Julian Nyca. Sex trafficking of women and girls is prevalent, and men and boys are also affected. In August 1993, Lipovac, together with four other people, went to Liskovac and brutally killed three members of the Rizvanovic family, wounded a four-year-old and raped a 20-year-old woman several times. A team of researchers interviewed a total of 91 people on the move and 245 key informants—people with responsibility for, and/or with direct access to, the affected population, including government authorities, civil society and international organizations. The victims were construction workers, some 700 of them, mainly from Bosnia, but also from Serbia and North Macedonia. Kunarac even claimed that the woman he raped actually seduced him. The ICTY sentenced Lukic to life in prison for large-scale war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against Bosniak civilians in the town of Visegrad in 1992. But despite progress in prosecuting and punishing such crimes, research shows that although numerous perpetrators have been tried, many have not. Deprivation of liberty for extortion is widespread in Libya, perpetrated either by isolated actors or when people are forced to stay in prison camps not only for the purpose of extortion, but also for forced labour. There are a few documented cases of the subsequent involvement of convicted war criminals in Bosnia in the trafficking of human beings. Human trafficking was really not a term that was widely used in 1999 and 2001. Apart from sex and labour trafficking, the main form of trafficking among people who travel the routes is forced criminal activities, particularly forced migrant smuggling. Balkan human trafficking 'to rise' Organised gangs force women into prostitution. But this lack of data should not be an excuse for a lack of action to prevent trafficking, particularly by allowing people to travel and transit regularly, thereby avoid dangerous routes. A family fleeing the war in Syria. In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . Cultural taboos generally prevent the trafficking of young boys for sexual exploitation, however, some cases have been noted among Romanian children trafficked abroad. He then changed his surname from Savanovic to Kojic, and in 2010, found himself in detention in Bosnia. Stay updated with the latest research, visualizations, and analysis from Delta 8.7. Within the Western Balkan countries prevails still a mentality that unfortunately doesn’t help and support our grounds of democratic countries, rule of law standards and the human right principles. This article is a summary of a research report that was produced in cooperation with BIRN. ↩ Yuliya V. Tverdova. What do these cases have in common? For example, Stanko Savanovic, alias Geza, was arrested in 2003 as a member of a criminal gang led by Milivoje Zarubica, nicknamed Puja, who was described by media at the time as “the Balkan master of human trafficking”. Sex trafficking is defined as transportation of persons by means of coercion, deception and/or force into exploitative and slavery-like conditions and is commonly associated with organized crime.. Germany has become a "center for the sexual exploitation of young women from Eastern Europe, as well as a sphere of activity for organized crime groups from around the world," Movement in and out of Tandarei has been banned after abnormally large numbers of COVID-19 infections were reported in the town, which is home to one of Europe’s major human trafficking … In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . The action on “Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina” is implemented within the joint programme of the European Union and the Council of Europe “Horizontal Facility for the Western Balkans and Turkey 2019-2022”. The Balkans are a main channel for arms trafficking into Western Europe. Jelena Bjelica, “Trafficking in Human Beings in the Balkans,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Belgrade (2002), 47. It helps to fill an important gap on an extremely timely issue, and should be of great interest to both academic and policy audiences.” Human trafficking and the Balkans / H. Richard Friman and Simon Reich Trafficking exchanges and economic responses : reflections from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia / Lynellyn D. Long Combating trafficking : international efforts and their ramifications / Julie Mertus and Andrea Bertone Civil society organisations have accused the Bucharest government of allowing Romania to remain the country of origin of most victims of trafficking in the EU. The Whistleblower is a shocking film that reveals how Balkan peacekeepers turned a blind eye to kidnapping, torture and rape. The deadly effects of this trade were brought to the world’s attention when, in 2015, jihadists equipped with Yugoslav-era assault rifles from Serbia killed more than 130 people on the streets of Paris and in the Bataclan theatre. In a context where people transit through countries within a relatively short time period, there is little time for the identification of trafficking and vulnerabilities to trafficking. Many migrants also fear retaliation by their traffickers, who often reside at the same accommodation centre as they do. By January 2000, human trafficking had already been identified as a problem as Kosovo became a major destination for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. They quote the agency Europol's 2018 data on the numbers of people smuggled through the Balkans as being 6,600 cases; … Balkans Human Trafficking News Topics; Specialized News Sections on Balkans Human Trafficking. Sometimes, prosecutions have not included sexual violence charges in their indictments in order to focus on ‘larger’ crimes, as in the case of Bosnian Serb paramilitary leader Milan Lukic. Edited by: H. Richard Friman and Simon ReichReviewer: Christopher Gunn, Victims’ testimonies and transcripts of the trials of men who raped sexually-enslaved women contain many names of individuals who have not been brought to justice – suggesting that more connections between perpetrators of wartime sexual violence and crimes involving trafficking might still be undiscovered. Serbia failing in fight against human trafficking Women and girls make up the vast majority of victims of human trafficking, often for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Sexual exploitation rarely came alone; it was combined with the labour exploitation of sexually abused women, who were required to clean, cook, do laundry and other tasks while in detention. Free movement across Europe, high poverty rates at home and lack of effective government policies have left thousands of Romanian women vulnerable to human trafficking networks. According to an indepth report on trafficking in the region by H. Richard Friman and Simon Reitch, in Bosnia and Herzegovina local women are trafficked out of the country, while women from elsewhere in the region were trafficked into the country for prostitution networks that focused on the growing international community as clientele. ... Iran and other Tier 3 countries that aren’t seen to have made any effort in combating trafficking. But the sexual enslavement of women and girls in the 1990s Bosnian war, although it has all the elements of trafficking, has never been discussed in the same context. Dr Claire Healy is Trafficking Research Coordinator for ICMPD’s Anti-Trafficking Programme. They further argued that the victim’s allegations resulted from her being manipulated by the prosecution – within the broader discourse of presenting war crimes prosecutions as a witch-hunt targeting the perpetrator’s specific ethnic group – or that the claims were made by the plaintiff because she was inherently evil. In 2012, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina convicted him of involvement in the commission of genocide in Srebrenica when he was a member of the Bosnian Serb Army’s 10th Reconnaissance Division, along with co-defendants Franc Kos, Vlastimir Gorijan and Zoran Goronja. Men and boys are also forced by smugglers to navigate boats from Turkey to Greece and from Libya to Italy. I think that most UN officers considered these girls to be simply prostitutes. ↩ “Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women,” UN Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Beijing, 1995. It is not a problem that is targeting isolated parts of the world making only a small number of people its victims. Up until the 1990s, Kosovo Albanians served as couriers for Turkish gangs. The indictment said that three women, two of whom were 13 and 15 years old, were also kept effectively enslaved by the paramilitaries; forced to cook, clean houses, wash soldiers’ uniforms and do whatever they were told under the threat of murder. The exploitation sometimes does not involve prostitution per se, but rather “survival sex”—the exchange of sexual services for a needed good or service. Though not an indication of prevalence in itself, specific details about a total of 69 potential trafficking cases involving one or more potential victims were identified in the course of our research, as well as 14 cases of deprivation of liberty for extortion­. Jelena Bjelica, “Trafficking in Human Beings in the Balkans,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Belgrade (2002), 47. Shqip Macedonian Bos/Hrv/Srp. the Balkan route: Identifying victims of human trafficking in Serbia. human trafficking human security and the balkans the security continuum Oct 26, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Publishing TEXT ID a71b3626 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library this context that south eastern europe and especially the western balkan region has emerged as a nexus point in human trafficking human trafficking human security and the In Greece, North Macedonia and Serbia during 2015–2016, the high numbers of people travelling prevented an adequate response to cases of potential trafficking. In terms of conflict-related sexual violence, the Bosnian war is also known for so-called ‘rape camps’ and other forms of sexual slavery which sometimes involved effectively forced marriages, as well as forced pregnancies, a phenomenon which has been significantly less examined. Sex trafficking is a human … In February 2017, following a plea agreement, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina sentenced Lipovac to a year and nine months in prison. LYON, France – Authorities in the Balkans have dealt a blow to organized crime groups by arresting 72 suspected traffickers and 167 migrant smugglers in an INTERPOL-led operation. Human trafficking is a widespread contemporary phenomenon, and its most prevalent form is trafficking for sexual exploitation. Please check back at a later date to subscribe to our newsletter. Cases of human traffickers convicted in Serbia between 2005 and 2018 were analysed to find out whether the defendants had also participated in any war crimes. The aim of the Forum is to enable all relevant actors dealing with human trafficking (furthermore: HT) from five countries in the region namely, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia to come together and jointly discuss various issues and concrete solutions with the potential to shape a new and innovative regional response to HT in the Western Balkans. This article has been prepared by Claire Healy as a contributor to Delta 8.7. By Nick Hawton In Sarajevo Senior United Nations officials in Bosnia are warning of a dramatic increase in trafficked women passing through the Balkans and into western Europe. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE BALKANS: AN INSIDE REPORT JASNA VUJIN * I. Many Muslim Bosniak women were forcibly ‘baptised’ as Orthodox Christian, or their names were formally or informally changed to Serb names. Sometimes sex trafficking is highly visible, such as street prostitution. Approach. Trafficking in human beings is a widespread contemporary phenomenon, and its most prevalent form is trafficking for sexual exploitation - popularly known as sex trafficking - with women constituting most of the victims. Throughout 2018, we conducted research in countries along the Balkan route: Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia and Hungary, as well as in Germany and Italy. Some of the female victims were as young as 12 and 15. ↩ Yuliya V. Tverdova. In transit countries like Serbia and Hungary, people on the move are exploited in the services industry, and there are signs of women being trafficked for domestic servitude in Turkey Bulgaria and Germany. Tolic was also found guilty of taking several Serb women from one detention facility and raping them. Preventing human trafficking in the Western Balkans and supporting victims The challenge Despite the systems in place to combat human trafficking, the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia) is not sufficiently able to prevent trafficking in human beings or support (potential) victims. 4.75%. T he city "plays a central role as a hotspot for criminal human trafficking organisations on the Balkans," the German federal police told the newspaper. The region of Western Balkans, has started a project call "Civic associations as a control mechanism in the fight against human trafficking in the Western Balkans"1. This project, which was established within the framework of the Balkans Stability Pact Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings in July 2002, aims to create a regional database on trafficking. In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . The most extreme outcomes of this sort of sexual exploitation were (forced) marriages between the rapists and victims, as in the Skocic case. When compelled to admit that ‘contacts of a sexual nature’ occurred, the perpetrators claimed that this was not violent, but consensual. The warrant for the arrest of Lipovac was issued in 2008 when he failed to appear before the Supreme Court in Banja Luka in second-instance proceedings relating to a war crime against Bosniak civilians in the village of Liskovac near Gradiska in northern Bosnia. In addition, around 200 people who entered North Macedonia and 75 who entered Serbia during 2016–2017 were considered potential trafficking victims by the authorities, though there is no information about their profiles or about any follow-up. As provided for in the Terms and Conditions of Use of Delta 8.7, the opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of UNU or its partners. There is also a general lack of capacity among European authorities to identify potential trafficking cases among asylum applicants. Some cities are destinations for human traffickers, and some are sources of trafficking victims, but Baltimore is both. research in countries along the Balkan route, little time for the identification of trafficking, outside the country that they are identified in. The full report can be found below. TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS AND VIOLENCE: BALKAN PENINSULA AND THE VIOLENT ENTREPRENEUR MODEL Stanojoska Angelina, MSc in Criminology and Criminalistics 1 Ristov Ivan, MA in Criminology 2 angiest22@gmail.com ivan.ristov@yahoo.com Abstract Balkan Peninsula known by its violent history is home for crime groups working by the model of violence. Defence teams for trafficking perpetrators have used similar strategies. The perpetrators also sold three of these women and girls to other soldiers. Wartime Sexual Violence in Bosnia: The Human Trafficking Connection, Sexual Enslavement in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Links to the Contemporary Concept of Trafficking in Persons, Croatian Defence Council member Josip Tolic, convicted him of involvement in the commission of genocide in Srebrenica, sentenced Lipovac to ten years and six months in prison, Male Rape Victims Confront the Bosnian War’s Last Taboo, Compensation Comes Late for Rape Survivors of Balkan Wars, Wartime Rape in Bosnia: A Daughter’s Search for Truth. Child trafficking in the Balkans is most likely to occur in children younger than twelve (for begging, theft, and other street crimes) and older than 15 (for commercial sexual exploitation). There are a few documented cases of the subsequent involvement of convicted war criminals in Bosnia in the trafficking of human beings. The deadly effects of this trade were brought to the world’s attention when, in 2015, jihadists equipped with Yugoslav-era assault rifles from Serbia killed more than 130 people on the streets of Paris and in the Bataclan theatre. The region offers ideal conditions: political instability; social and economic malaise; a prevalence of organized criminal networks; and a culture of corruption. Unaccompanied Afghan and Pakistani boys and men are recruited by migrant smugglers and forced to provide smuggling services overland. “Organized crime groups prey on the vulnerable and help them cross borders illegally for hefty sums. 3 BALKANS DECLARATION on the suppression of trafficking and the exploitation of human beings1 Zagreb, 19 September 2013 The undersigned Civil Society Organizations (CSOs):2 1) Recalling ou States’ intenational and Euopean commitments to p event and combat For these crimes, the Supreme Court of Republika Srpska sentenced Lipovac to ten years and six months in prison. 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